This smallish, dark mosquito with conspicuous white markings on the scutum and banded legs is the primary vector of the viruses causing human Dengue and Yellow fever. In Asia, this species is also considered the principal vector of Chikungunya and O'nyong-nyong viruses while it is a potential vector of dog heartworm, Murray Valley encephalitis and Ross River viruses in Australia.
Aedes albopictus is also known as the Asian tiger mosquito and is associated with the transmission of dengue fever, eastern equine encephalitis and heartworm.
Aedes (Stegomyia) polynesiensis is dispersed through the South Pacific, occurring also in portions of the Cook Islands, Fiji, French Polynesia, Tuvalu and other islands. Is is an important vector of dengue fever and filariasis and can also carry heartworm of dogs.
The larvae of this species prefers shallow woodland pools or margins of large ponds, and because its flight range is limited, the females tend to be found near these areas.
Aedes vexans (Inland Floodwater Mosquito) is capable of carrying the West Nile Virus, but does not play a significant role in transmission in this area.
Anopheles gambiae is the major vector of Plasmodium falciparum in Africa and is one of the most efficient malaria vectors in the world. Every year, more than 500 million people become severely ill with malaria, with most cases and deaths occurring in sub-Saharan Africa. Asia, Latin America, the Middle East and parts of Europe are also affected.
Anopheles punctipennis can probably be found in all of the contiguous states within the United States, and the larvae can live in a wide variety of habitats but prefer cool water.
Anopheles quadrimaculatus (Common Malaria Mosquito) is most abundant in the south-eastern states, but is occasionally found in South Dakota. The Dakotas represent the northwestern boundary of this Anopheles species' territory.
Anopheles stephensi is the major vector of human malaria in Middle East and South Asia region, and belongs to the same subgenus as Anopheles gambiae, the main malaria vector in Africa.
Anopheles walkeri resemble An. quadrimaculatus, but are somewhat darker, have narrow white rings on their palpi, and their wing spots are less pronounced than those of the An. quadrimaculatus.
Coquillettidia perturbans is the only species of this genus found in South Dakota and produces only one generation per year. This species is found more commonly in the eastern and southern states...
Not much is known about the biology of Culex erraticus. It is found mainly in the southeastern United States. It overwinters as an adult female and lays its eggs on the leaves of aquatic plants in permanent water.
Culex pipiens is small or medium in size with brown or yellowish coloration. Some of the identifying marks of this species are narrow well defined pale bands at the base of the abdominal segments;
The appearance, habits, and distribution of Culex restuans is somewhat similar to that of Cx. pipiens. Culex restuans has two silvery dots on the scutum that are not present on Cx. pipiens...
Culex tarsalis is a very common mosquito in most states west of the Mississippi, and is considered to be the most important vector of viral encephalitis to horses and humans in the western states.
This species is similar to the Culex pipiens and Culex restuans in color and size, it can be differentiated from these species by its abdominal markings.
Culiseta inornata is found throughout South Dakota. Females seem to prefer domesticated animals as the source of blood, but will also feed on humans during the active months of late spring.
Mosquitoes of the genus Haemagogus are mostly found in tropical Central and South America and are medically important as vectors of sylvatic yellow fever virus, Ilheus virus and some other arboviruses.
Ochlerotatus canadensis is found in all but the Southwestern states and most of Canada. They breed mainly in small, tree-shaded ponds with dead vegetation.
Ochlerotatus dorsalis is found abundantly in western South Dakota along with Ae. vexans. It can be differentiated from Ae. vexans by the yellowish-white scales covering their body.
Ochlerotatus fitchii females are medium-sized mosquitoes that are brown and yellowish-white in color. Ochlerotatus fitchii ranges throughout the northern United States and Southern portion of Canada
Larvae of the Ochlerotatus sollicitans (Saltmarsh Mosquito) are more typically found in salt marshes in coastal areas, however, they can also develop in more inland areas associated with brackish water swamps.
Ochlerotatus triseriatus (Eastern Treehole Mosquito) is widely distributed east of the Rocky Mountains and inhabits all of the Southeastern States.
Larvae are often hard to find because they spend extended times hiding at the bottom of the pool.
Although it is not known for sure, signifera probably overwinters as larvae. It is not known to feed on humans.
This (Gallinipper) species is found throughout the eastern part of the United States from Mexico to Canada. Its large size and vicious bite make this species a very annoying mosquito.
The Psorophora cyanescens is a very attractive mosquito with blue bands on its abdomen and entirely black tarsi. It is found in southern states north into Illinois and Indiana, and is abundant in Oklahoma.
Mosquitoes of the genus Toxorhynchites are sometimes called mosquito hawks, because their larvae eat larvae of other mosquitoes, or elephant mosquitoes – because of their exceptional size. The wingspan of Toxorhynchites may exceed 12 mm (0.4 inches) and the body length may exceed 7 mm (0.2 inches).
Mosquitoes of the genus Culiseta are quite often called the “snow mosquitoes” because many of the species live in northern territories of taiga or mountain regions and females overwinter in adult stage under the snow.